Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Systems
Solar thermal information is listed on our
website for your reference. We are not available to advise, supply
nor install solar thermal systems. Please contact a professional
plumber in your area who can advise you on that technology.
Over a horsepower of energy per square yard falls on your roof
on a sunny day. You can capture this energy to heat your domestic
hot water using a number of different methods.
If your motivation is to use alternative energy to save money
on your fuel costs, this is the first place to start. There are
many possible ways to use solar hot water. In general, anything
that requires water to be heated can benefit from solar energy.
Some projects make sense, some do not. Pool heating and domestic
hot water are the most common uses of solar thermal and offer
the most appealing return on investment.
In a solar hot water system, heat from the sun is transferred
directly to water or a glycol mixture circulating in a collector.
There are two types of circulating systems in common use: the
open-loop and the closed-loop.
A closed-loop system circulates a water and glycol mixture
through the collector, where it absorbs heat. It then passes through
a heat exchanger, where it transfers the heat to the water in
a storage tank or a pre-heat hot water tank. The pre-heat tank
becomes the cold water supply for an existing domestic hot water
There is no need to drain a closed-loop system in the winter because
the glycol mixture does not freeze, so total hot water production
will be higher than with an open-loop system. If your home is
already equipped with an electric or gas-fired hot water heater,
a closed-loop hot water heater will work the best.
An open-loop system circulates the solar heated water directly
into the hot water tank. Customers who use a wood stove with a
water jacket in the winter may easily add a solar collector to
use the sun for hot water in the summer. This system is the simplest
to install, but it must be drained in freezing weather.
Thermosiphon or Pump
A thermosiphon occurs when the hot water tank is located above
the collector. Heated fluid has a lower density than cold fluid.
Natural convection causes the heated liquid to flow into the water
tank. This system is most similar to the hot water coil found
in many wood or oil stoves and requires no circulation pump.
A thermosiphon system is often not practical especially if you
want your collectors mounted on the roof. This configuration requires
a circulation pump in the system. This type of pump draws very
little energy and is often powered by a small solar electric module.
When the sun is shining, it is heating and pumping water. A solar
electric powered circulating pump means no complicated differential
controllers are required.
There are many different collectors used in solar domestic
hot water (SDHW) systems. The most common is the flat plate grid
collector. This is a series of pipes connected to a top and bottom
manifold. These collectors are usually glazed and insulated. Typically
a 4 ft x 10 ft (1.2 m x 3 m) collector will produce as much energy
in full sunlight as a 2kW hot water tank element.
The simplest and least costly form of circulating heater is a
rubber tube mat connected between two header pipes. These collectors
are unglazed and uninsulated. They are usually used for swimming
pool heating but are also used seasonally for domestic hot water.
These are the least efficient form of water heater and the least
No form of solar hot water heating will be 100% effective in the
Canadian climate. For cloudy periods a backup water heating system
is required. If you have an existing electric or natural gas hot
water tank or wood stove, your backup is in place. Solar water
heaters may be used for space heating. In space heating systems
the solar heated water circulates through a radiator or pipes
laid in the floor of the area to be heated.
to Solar Water Heating Systems
Solar energy is a clean and abundant energy resource that can be used
to supplement many of your energy needs. Solar energy can be utilized
as a form of heat, such as solar water heating, and as electricity, such
as solar photovoltaics.
A buyer's guide to
Solar hot Water Heating Systems
Heating your building
with Solar Energy
A simple technology can dramatically reduce fuel consumption and heating
costs, particularly for buildings with a high demand for fresh air. The
concept: use solar energy to preheat outside air before it is introduced
into a plant or other facility. The warmed air can be distributed as is,
further heated in a building's primary heating system or used as combustion
air for industrial furnaces.